Sitemap

A list of all the posts and pages found on the site. For you robots out there is an XML version available for digesting as well.

Pages

I am a Lecturer (~Assistant Professor) in the Security Systems Research Group of the Lancaster University School of Computing and Communications.

My research has explored a variety of issues involving security, context privacy and trust assessment in resource-constrained systems. This has ranged from context privacy issues in vehicles and wireless sensor networks, and security of different aspects of vehicular systems (including: system analysis, real-world testing and PNT). I am interested in developing and testing practical solutions to security issued based on a solid theoretical foundation.

I completed my undergraduate Master of Engineering degree in Computer Science at the University of Warwick in 2013 and spent a short period in industry before returning to the Department of Computer Science at the University of Warwick to undertake my PhD supervised by Dr. Arshad Jhumka. I submitted my PhD in May 2018, after which I worked in the Cyber Security Centre in WMG from April 2018 to March 2020. From March 2020 until March 2021 I was a Research Fellow in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Warwick, where I worked on the TEAM project which was funded by PETRAS to perform trust-based task offloading from resource constrained devices to resource rich edge nodes.

The Security Systems Group at Lancaster has a number of open PhD and Postdoc positions, please get in contact for further details. The group also runs frequent events and seminars on a wide range of security-focused topics.

My Open Positions

Awards and Nominations

Guest Editor

Programme Committees

Reviewed For

  • IEEE Security and Privacy (IEEE S&P) Posters
  • Security and Communication Networks (SCN)
  • ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems (TCPS)
  • IEEE Access
  • International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks (IJDSN)
  • Journal of Information Security and Applications (JISA)
  • MDPI Sensors and MDPI Electronics
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics (TII)
  • Ad Hoc Networks (ADHOC)
  • Computer Communications (COMCOM)
  • Vehicular Communications (VEHCOM)

Student-Staff Liaison Committee (University of Warwick)

Worked with staff and postgraduate students to resolve issues in the PGR Student-Staff Liaison Committee.

  • Representative (2016/17, 2017/18)
  • Co-Chair (2015/16)
  • Secretary (2014/15)
June
2021
Outreach Introduced Cyber Security to students in Kazakhstan
May
2021
Conference Presentation Presented paper "Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge Based IoT Networks" at IEEE INFOCOM
April
2021
New jobLecturer at Lancaster University in the Systems and Security Group of School of Computing and Communications
March
2021
Conference Presentation Presented paper "Trust Assessment in 32 KiB of RAM: Multi-application Trust-based Task Offloading for Resource-constrained IoT Nodes" at the ACM Symposium of Applied Computing
February
2021
New Special Issue MDPI Electronics Special Issue on Design and Evaluation of Secure Diagnosis and Control Benchmarks and Test-Scenarios for Cyber-Physical Systems
December
2020
New paper Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM
December
2020
New paper Trust Assessment in 32 KiB of RAM: Multi-application Trust-based Task Offloading for Resource-constrained IoT Nodes. In The 36th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing
July
2020
Success Story Spirent partners with WMG to develop cyber-security services across Connected and Automated Mobility markets
May
2020
Funding Awarded PETRAS SRF funding to investigate trust-based task offloading in IoT systems
September
2019
Success Story Cyber security of Connected Autonomous Vehicles trialled
June
2019
Guest Speaker ORBIT RRI Ethical Hackathon at Royal Holloway

Evaluating Trustworthiness of Edge-Based Multi-Tenanted IoT Devices

March 2020 – March 2021

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick

Resource-constrained IoT devices have typically been used to perform sensing and actuation, however, there is increasing interest in those devices performing decision making. However, if these tasks are computationally or memory intensive, then the IoT devices will not have insufficient resources to execute the tasks. One solution is to offload the tasks from resource-constrained IoT devices to resource-rich Edge nodes. For redundancy multiple Edge nodes should be provisioned, but this raises the question of which Edge node should be selected to perform a task. This project investigated building a middleware to perform task offloading based on a measure of behavioural trust with limited resources (e.g., 32 KiB of RAM).

PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach

January 2020 – March 2020

WMG, University of Warwick

Vehicular position, navigation, and timing (PNT) systems are of vital importance to current vehicles, future autonomous vehicles and infrastructure depending on time synchronisation. Existing GNSS infrastructure has limited mitigation to prevent a variety of attacks. This project performed a short feasibility study on practical attacks against a vehicle’s PNT system using a PNT attack emulator.

FAIR-SPACE

October 2018 – December 2019

WMG, University of Warwick

Access to space is becoming increasingly cheaper, meaning companies and organisations who were previously priced out of the market are now considering space-based deployments. These deployments may also include novel functionality such as debris collection. New entrants will lack the knowledge that well-established space organisations have about how to secure these systems and the new functionality will increase the ways in which these systems will be attacked. This project looked at ways in which these vulnerabilities could be identified and then formally proved to not be present.

IoT Transport and Mobility Demonstrator

August 2018 – May 2019

WMG, University of Warwick

With the vehicle-to-vehicle communications being used to facilitated new functionality, there is a need for new security mechanisms to protect this communication. Much work has already been undertaken to develop these mechanisms, but they are rarely tested in real-world environments. This project took existing security and privacy technqiues and performed a deployment at three sites in the UK to test their efficacy.

CAPRI

April 2018 – September 2018

WMG, University of Warwick

As connected and autonomous vehicles are expected to become commonplace on roads nationwide, new featured are being integrated into vehicles. This includes functionality such as vehicle-to-vehicle communication and machine learning models. It is important that we investigate and address security issues posed by the larger attack surface before a wide deployment. This project designed a reference architecture which facilitated attack surface analysis of connected autonomous vehicles.

Source Location Privacy for Wirless Sensor Networks

September 2014 – April 2018

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick

Wireless sensor networks are useful for monitoring events over large areas for example, tracking the location of endangered species. However, by deploying this network to obtain data for conservation, it also reveals context information to an adversary about where the animals are. My PhD involved developing routing algorithms to delay an adversary in their attempt to locate the source of messages in such a network.

The bibtex for all my publications is available from here.

First page of A Near-Optimal Source Location Privacy Scheme for Wireless Sensor NetworksFirst page of Privacy Challenges with Protecting Live Vehicular Location ContextFirst page of Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks
A Near-Optimal Source Location Privacy Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (2017).Privacy Challenges with Protecting Live Vehicular Location Context (2020).Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks (2021).

Publication Map

2021

  • Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Tim Watson. Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks. In IEEE INFOCOM, 1–10. Virtual Event, Canada, 10–13 May 2021. IEEE.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation] [dataset] [more details]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Tim Watson. Trust Assessment in 32 KiB of RAM: Multi-application Trust-based Task Offloading for Resource-constrained IoT Nodes. In The 36th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC’21, 1–10. Virtual Event, Republic of Korea, 22–26 March 2021. ACM. doi:10.1145/3412841.3441898.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation] [dataset] [more details]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Carsten Maple. A Spatial Source Location Privacy-Aware Duty Cycle for Internet of Things Sensor Networks. ACM Transactions on Internet of Things, 2(1):1–32, February 2021. doi:10.1145/3430379.
    [bibtex] [file] [more details]

2020

  • Matthew Bradbury, Phillip Taylor, Ugur Ilker Atmaca, Carsten Maple, and Nathan Griffiths. Privacy Challenges with Protecting Live Vehicular Location Context. IEEE Access, 8:207465–207484, 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3038533.
    [bibtex] [file] [more details]
  • Carsten Maple, Matthew Bradbury, Hu Yuan, Marie Farrell, Clare Dixon, Michael Fisher, and Uger Ilker Atmaca. Security-Minded Verification of Space Systems. In IEEE Aerospace Conference. Big Sky, Montana, USA, 7–14 March 2020. IEEE. doi:10.1109/AERO47225.2020.9172563.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Carsten Maple, Uger Ilker Atmaca, and Sara Cannizzaro. Identifying Attack Surfaces in the Evolving Space Industry Using Reference Architectures. In IEEE Aerospace Conference. Big Sky, Montana, USA, 7–14 March 2020. IEEE. doi:10.1109/AERO47225.2020.9172785.
    [bibtex] [file]

2019

  • Carsten Maple, Matthew Bradbury, Anh Tuan Le, and Kevin Ghirardello. A Connected and Autonomous Vehicle Reference Architecture for Attack Surface Analysis. Applied Sciences, 9(23):5101, November 2019. doi:10.3390/app9235101.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Hu Yuan, Matthew Bradbury, Carsten Maple, and Chen Gu. Throughput Aware Authentication Prioritisation for Vehicular Communication Networks. In 90th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Fall), 1–5. Sep. 2019. doi:10.1109/VTCFall.2019.8891375.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Jasmine Grosso, Arshad Jhumka, and Matthew Bradbury. Reliable Many-to-Many Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Ant Colony Optimisation. In 15th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC), 111–118. September 2019. doi:10.1109/EDCC.2019.00030.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Marie Farrell, Matthew Bradbury, Michael Fisher, Louise A. Dennis, Clare Dixon, Hu Yuan, and Carsten Maple. Using Threat Analysis Techniques to Guide Formal Verification: A Case Study of Cooperative Awareness Messages. In Peter Csaba Ölveczky and Gwen Salaün, editors, Software Engineering and Formal Methods, 471–490. Cham, 2019. Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-30446-1 25.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Chen Gu, Matthew Bradbury, and Arshad Jhumka. Phantom walkabouts: A customisable source location privacy aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(20):e5304, 2019. doi:10.1002/cpe.5304.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Carsten Maple. The Impact of Decreasing Transmit Power Levels on FlockLab To Achieve a Sparse Network. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Benchmarking Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet of Things, CPS-IoTBench ‘19, 7–12. New York, NY, USA, April 2019. ACM. doi:10.1145/3312480.3313171.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation] [dataset] [more details]

2018

  • Jack Kirton, Matthew Bradbury, and Arshad Jhumka. Towards optimal source location privacy-aware TDMA schedules in wireless sensor networks. Computer Networks, 146:125–137, 2018. doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2018.09.010.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Chen Gu, Matthew Bradbury, Jack Kirton, and Arshad Jhumka. A Decision Theoretic Framework for Selecting Source Location Privacy Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks. Future Generation Computing Systems, 87:514–526, 2018. doi:10.1016/j.future.2018.01.046.
    [bibtex] [file] [dataset]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Matthew Leeke. Hybrid Online Protocols for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 115:67–81, May 2018. doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2018.01.006.
    [bibtex] [file]

2017

  • Matthew Bradbury and Arshad Jhumka. A Near-Optimal Source Location Privacy Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks. In 16th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 409–416. August 2017. doi:10.1109/Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS.2017.265.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation] [dataset] [more details]
  • Jack Kirton, Matthew Bradbury, and Arshad Jhumka. Source Location Privacy-Aware Data Aggregation Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks. In 37th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), 2200–2205. June 2017. doi:10.1109/ICDCS.2017.171.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Matthew Bradbury and Arshad Jhumka. Understanding Source Location Privacy Protocols in Sensor Networks via Perturbation of Time Series. In IEEE INFOCOM, 1611–1619. May 2017. doi:10.1109/INFOCOM.2017.8057122.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation]
  • Arshad Jhumka and Matthew Bradbury. Deconstructing Source Location Privacy-aware Routing Protocols. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC’17, 431–436. ACM, April 2017. doi:10.1145/3019612.3019655.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation]
  • Chen Gu, Matthew Bradbury, and Arshad Jhumka. Phantom Walkabouts in Wireless Sensor Networks. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing, SAC’17, 609–616. ACM, April 2017. doi:10.1145/3019612.3019732.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation]

2016

  • Joanna F. Laikin, Matthew Bradbury, Chen Gu, and Matthew Leeke. Towards Fake Sources for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sources. In 15th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS’16), 1–6. December 2016. doi:10.1109/ICCS.2016.7833572.
    [bibtex] [file]

2015

  • Chen Gu, Matthew Bradbury, Arshad Jhumka, and Matthew Leeke. Assessing the Performance of Phantom Routing on Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. In 21st IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC), 99–108. November 2015. doi:10.1109/PRDC.2015.9.
    [bibtex] [file]
  • Matthew Bradbury, Matthew Leeke, and Arshad Jhumka. A Dynamic Fake Source Algorithm for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. In 14th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 531–538. August 2015. doi:10.1109/Trustcom.2015.416.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation]
  • Arshad Jhumka, Matthew Bradbury, and Matthew Leeke. Fake source-based source location privacy in wireless sensor networks. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 27(12):2999–3020, 2015. doi:10.1002/cpe.3242.
    [bibtex] [file]

2014

  • Arshad Jhumka, Matthew Bradbury, and Sain Saginbekov. Efficient fault-tolerant collision-free data aggregation scheduling for wireless sensor networks. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 74(1):1789–1801, 2014. doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2013.09.011.
    [bibtex] [file]

2013

  • Alasdair Thomason, Matthew Leeke, Matthew Bradbury, and Arshad Jhumka. Evaluating the Impact of Broadcast Rates and Collisions on Fake Source Protocols for Source Location Privacy. In 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 667–674. July 2013. doi:10.1109/TrustCom.2013.81.
    [bibtex] [file]

2012

  • Arshad Jhumka, Matthew Bradbury, and Matthew Leeke. Towards Understanding Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks through Fake Sources. In 11th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 760–768. June 2012. doi:10.1109/TrustCom.2012.281.
    [bibtex] [file] [presentation]

PhD Thesis

  • Matthew Bradbury. Near Optimal Routing Protocols for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks: Modelling, Design and Evaluation. PhD thesis, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, 2018. URL: https://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/115772.
    [bibtex] [file] [dataset]

Technical Reports

  • Matthew Bradbury, Elijah Adegoke, Erik Kampert, Matthew Higgins, Tim Watson, Paul Jennings, Colin Ford, Guy Buesnel, and Steve Hickling. PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach, Report 2: Specifications for Cyber Testing Facilities. Technical Report 2, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, April 2020. Version 1.2. URL: https://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/139522/.
    [bibtex] [file] [more details]
  • Elijah Adegoke, Matthew Bradbury, Erik Kampert, Matthew Higgins, Tim Watson, Paul Jennings, Colin Ford, Guy Buesnel, and Steve Hickling. PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach, Report 1: GNSS Resilience and Identified Vulnerabilities. Technical Report 1, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, April 2020. Version 1.0. URL: https://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/139519/.
    [bibtex] [file] [more details]
  • Carsten Maple, Matthew Bradbury, Miles Elsden, Haitham Cruickshank, Hu Yuan, Chen Gu, and Phillip Asuquo. IoT Transport and Mobility Demonstrator: Cyber Security Testing on National Infrastructure. Technical Report, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, May 2019.
    [bibtex] [file]

{% for post in site.talks reversed %} {% include archive-single.html %} {% endfor %}

University of Lancaster, UK

Lecturer for:

University of Warwick, UK

Seminar and lab tutor for:

This website does not collect and store your data. No cookies are set by this website.

As this website is hosted by GitHub Pages, GitHub may log accesses to the website. Please see their Privacy Policy for more information, including a relevant excerpt below.

Please note that GitHub may collect User Personal Information from visitors to your GitHub Pages website, including logs of visitor IP addresses, to comply with legal obligations, and to maintain the security and integrity of the Website and the Service.

Posts

Projects

Source Location Privacy for Wirless Sensor Networks

September 2014 – April 2018

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick

Wireless sensor networks are useful for monitoring events over large areas for example, tracking the location of endangered species. However, by deploying this network to obtain data for conservation, it also reveals context information to an adversary about where the animals are. My PhD involved developing routing algorithms to delay an adversary in their attempt to locate the source of messages in such a network.

CAPRI

April 2018 – September 2018

WMG, University of Warwick

As connected and autonomous vehicles are expected to become commonplace on roads nationwide, new featured are being integrated into vehicles. This includes functionality such as vehicle-to-vehicle communication and machine learning models. It is important that we investigate and address security issues posed by the larger attack surface before a wide deployment. This project designed a reference architecture which facilitated attack surface analysis of connected autonomous vehicles.

IoT Transport and Mobility Demonstrator

August 2018 – May 2019

WMG, University of Warwick

With the vehicle-to-vehicle communications being used to facilitated new functionality, there is a need for new security mechanisms to protect this communication. Much work has already been undertaken to develop these mechanisms, but they are rarely tested in real-world environments. This project took existing security and privacy technqiues and performed a deployment at three sites in the UK to test their efficacy.

FAIR-SPACE

October 2018 – December 2019

WMG, University of Warwick

Access to space is becoming increasingly cheaper, meaning companies and organisations who were previously priced out of the market are now considering space-based deployments. These deployments may also include novel functionality such as debris collection. New entrants will lack the knowledge that well-established space organisations have about how to secure these systems and the new functionality will increase the ways in which these systems will be attacked. This project looked at ways in which these vulnerabilities could be identified and then formally proved to not be present.

PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach

January 2020 – March 2020

WMG, University of Warwick

Vehicular position, navigation, and timing (PNT) systems are of vital importance to current vehicles, future autonomous vehicles and infrastructure depending on time synchronisation. Existing GNSS infrastructure has limited mitigation to prevent a variety of attacks. This project performed a short feasibility study on practical attacks against a vehicle’s PNT system using a PNT attack emulator.

Evaluating Trustworthiness of Edge-Based Multi-Tenanted IoT Devices

March 2020 – March 2021

Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick

Resource-constrained IoT devices have typically been used to perform sensing and actuation, however, there is increasing interest in those devices performing decision making. However, if these tasks are computationally or memory intensive, then the IoT devices will not have insufficient resources to execute the tasks. One solution is to offload the tasks from resource-constrained IoT devices to resource-rich Edge nodes. For redundancy multiple Edge nodes should be provisioned, but this raises the question of which Edge node should be selected to perform a task. This project investigated building a middleware to perform task offloading based on a measure of behavioural trust with limited resources (e.g., 32 KiB of RAM).

Publications

PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach, Report 1: GNSS Resilience and Identified Vulnerabilities

Summary

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as GPS and Galileo are vital sources of positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) information for vehicles. This information is of critical importance for connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) due to their dependence on this information for localisation, route planning, and situational awareness. A downside to solely relying on GNSS for PNT is that the signal strength arriving from navigation satellites in space is weak and currently there is no authentication included in the civilian GNSS adopted in the automotive industry. This means that cyber-attacks against the GNSS signal via jamming or spoofing are attractive to adversaries due to the potentially high impact they can achieve. This report reviews the vulnerabilities of GNSS services for CAVs, as well as detection and mitigation techniques, summarises the opinions on PNT cybertesting sourced from a select group of experts, and finishes with a description of the associated lab-based and real-world feasibility study and proposed research methodology.

Importance

This project has shown that the chosen Lab2Live methodological approach, starting with lab-based testing on isolated GNSS-receivers and finishing with real-world tests on a blackbox CAV, provides the complimentary and comprehensive results that are required to evaluate a system’s PNT cyber resilience.

Perspectives

PNT equipment needs to be tested both in isolation, as part of a CAV or other element of a Connected and Automated Mobility system, and as part of the system as a whole. Attacks will have different impacts when considering a single component or a system-of-systems. For example, V2X communication may require timing information in order to send messages in the correct time slots. If an attack causes a PNT system on a CAV to have an incorrect time, it will not only affect local systems that depend on accurate time but also systems that the CAV was previously able to communicate with.For more information on the proposed recommendations and specifications for testing please see Report 2.

A Near-Optimal Source Location Privacy Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

Summary

Source Location Privacy (SLP) is an important problem when monitoring valuable assets with wireless sensors. It is important that sensitive context information, such as the location of an asset, is not revealed to adversaries. This work aimed to investigate optimal strategies to provide SLP by formulating the routing problem using integer linear programming (ILP). IBM’s ILOG CPLEX was used to obtain an optimal solution to the model. This solution aimed to delay and group messages until as late as possible and then deliver the messages to their destination. However, this solution made the assumption that wireless communication is perfectly reliable, which is not the case. So the optimal solution was recreated by a near-optimal routing algorithm that aimed to produce similar behaviour.

Example

An example optimal solution can be found below, where the attacker starts at node 13 and the source at node 1 sends 7 messages. Each of these messages need to reach the sink at node 13 without the attacker reaching node 1. Animation of an optimal solution

Importance

Using ILP to identify an optimal solution led to the discovery of an approach that had not previously been investigated in the literature. In this case delaying and grouping messages. Using a variety of techniques to obtain solutions to the same problem as different techniques can lead to different ways to solve the problem.

Perspectives

Techniques such as ILP are useful in understanding what the optimal behaviour of a system could be, however, in practise the assumptions needed to obtain this optimal result (such as reliable wireless links) or global knowledge are unlikely to be present. This does not make technqiues to obtain unusable, but care must be taken in translating optimal results into algorithms that aim to replicate them closely.

The Impact of Decreasing Transmit Power Levels on FlockLab To Achieve a Sparse Network

Summary

When developing techniques for IoT devices, it is preferable to perform testing on real devices in real situations such as on FlockLab 2, FIT IoT-LAB, and INDRIYA 2, as simulation will not perfectly reproduce these environments. However, IoT testbeds are not always deployed in the same scenarios for which techniques are developed for. It is often the case that testbeds are setup in existing facilities (such as inside office buildings) and devices are positioned close to each other. This means that there is currently a lack of testbeds supporting the testing of applications that will be deployed outside, on a large scale, with sparse connectivity. Commonly, the transmission power of device can be reduced in order to emulate a sparse network, this paper looked at the baseline effects of doing so.

Importance

Without understanding the baseline performance of a testbed, it becomes difficult to draw conclusions about the performance of the techniques that are being tested. This paper focused on understanding the noise floor and the impact that varying transmit power has on message transmit, message receive and current consumption performance. Below shows the current consumption when (1) performing no activities, (2) sending and receiving messages, and (3) logging the receive signal strength indicator (RSSI) and logging it via serial output. Graph of current draw under various activites Due to the office environment there are certain characteristics that would be different in a large-scale outdoors environment. For example, the noise floor is affected by the provision of WiFi in the building, as can be seen in the 2.4 GHz channels below. There is also a degree of link asymmetry that may be different in an outdoors environment. Graph of noise floor for different nodes

Perspectives

Reducing the transmit power to obtain a spare network is a poor choice in order to obtain the desired network topology, but it may be the only option available given the currently available IoT testbeds. Future effort will be needed to set up testbeds in these different environments.

PNT Cyber Resilience: a Lab2Live Observer Based Approach, Report 2: Specifications for Cyber Testing Facilities

Summary

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as GPS and Galileo are vital sources of positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) information for vehicles. This information is of critical importance for connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) due to their dependence on this information for localisation, route planning, and situational awareness. A downside to solely relying on GNSS for PNT is that the signal strength arriving from navigation satellites in space is weak and currently there is no authentication included in the civilian GNSS adopted in the automotive industry. This means that cyber-attacks against the GNSS signal via jamming or spoofing are attractive to adversaries due to the potentially high impact they can achieve. This report introduces specifications and recommendations for GNSS cyber-security test facilities for CAVs. These specifications are based on a survey of academic literature, interviews with a select group of experts, and experiences obtained performing laboratory and real-world testing.

Importance

GNSS now forms part of a country’s critical national infrastructure. Position information is vital for many services such as CAVs, but also areas such as precision agriculture. However, the timing information provided by GNSSs can be even more important, as indicated by the UK Government’s plan to create a National Timing Centre to provide resilience in the case of GNSS failure or attacks against them. It is important that suitable testing facilities and strategies are in place early to ensure that when CAVs are deployed in real-world scenarios they are able to tolerate GNSS jamming and spoofing attacks. Using PNT attack emulators (as performed in this project) is one solution that allows this testing to be performed without impacting other GNSS users.

Perspectives

This short project highlighted the feasibility of performing emulation of jamming and spoofing attacks against CAV PNT systems. However, it also highlighted the need for standardised tests and metrics as well facilities that are capable of performing these tests. While some capabilities do exist within the UK to perform this testing, further effort is required to ensure a broad range of testing capabilities exist and are maintained.For more information on the identified threats please see Report 1.

Privacy Challenges with Protecting Live Vehicular Location Context

Summary

Previous work on live location privacy protection for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication has rarely considered multiple sources of identity leakage. This is problematic as vehicles will exhibit multiple sources of identifying information. However, not all of this information will be available to all threat actors. Some identifying information will be easier and cheaper to obtain (e.g., via a sensor network listening for V2V communications) compared to other approaches (e.g., deploying a network of cameras). This paper identified the numerous sources of identity leakage from a vehicle and devices which may be present in it, the threat actors trying to violate the vehicle’s live location privacy, the techniques used to protect privacy, and ways in which identity sources and protection mechanisms can interact. Matrix of live location privacy threats and their relation to one another

Importance

There has been much focus on bringing autonomous vehicles to roads around the world and there has not always been as much emphasis on the new modes of connectivity future vehicles will have. The connectivity that new vehicles will be equipped with will allow tracking of vehicles with cheaper and less obvious equipment than before.

Perspectives

This research was performed to highlight the need for researchers to consider other identity sources and their interactions when developing techniques to protect the live location privacy of a vehicle. It is insufficient to focus on a single identity source. Depending on the type of identity source, multiple other technologies may need to be considered. For example, as ETSI V2X communication is based on IEEE 802.11p, devices that are eavesdropping those messages will also likely be able to eavesdrop messages from WiFi and Bluetooth devices. This means that privacy techniques for IEEE 802.11p also need to consider privacy techniques for these other technologies. An identity change can be linked if another devices does not synchronise the identity change

A Spatial Source Location Privacy-Aware Duty Cycle for Internet of Things Sensor Networks

Summary

Source Location Privacy (SLP) is an important problem when monitoring valuable assets with wireless sensors. It is important that sensitive context information, such as the location of an asset, is not revealed to adversaries. These wireless sensors are typically deployed with a limited energy source, so protection approaches need to consider their energy cost. In order to save energy, applications deployed on these devices perform duty cycling, where they aim to spend the majority of their lifetime sleeping. However, arbitrary duty cycling algorithms can lead to delays in messages being sent and received. For SLP algorithms that involve time sensitive messages an arbitrary duty cycle will impact the ability to provide SLP. So this paper proposed a duty cycling algorithm that uses knowledge of the SLP protocol to calculate when to wake up and when to sleep.

Importance

Without an effective duty cycle algorithm wireless sensors will have a very short lifetime, making them costly to deploy and maintain. So it is vital that algorithms developed for wireless sensor are evaluated with appropriate duty cycles and the impact duty cycling has on the efficacy of the protocols is evaluated. This work is the first to investigate the impact of duty cycling on SLP techniques against an adversary with local visibility. Existing technqiues against an adversary with global visibility tend to lend themselves naturally to duty cycles techniques which perform Time-division multiple access.

Perspectives

Existing technqiues to provide source location privacy in wireless sensor networks usually do not consider that sensor nodes sleep for the majority of their lifetime. Instead energy cost is measured in terms of messages sent and received. This approach was used as sending and receiving messages tends to be the most expensive individual operation that a wireless sensor node will perform, however, it ignores the continuous cost of keeping the CPU and other peripherals active instead of sleeping which can dominate the energy cost to send and receive messages over time. Future work evaluating the energy cost of applications on equivalent hardware needs to ensure appropriate evaluation techniques are used.

Trust Assessment in 32 KiB of RAM: Multi-application Trust-based Task Offloading for Resource-constrained IoT Nodes

Summary

There is increasing interest in using highly resource-constrained IoT devices to perform complex tasks. These resource might include limited processing power (e.g., 32MHz CPU), RAM (e.g., 32 KiB to 256 KiB), ROM (512 KiB), and potentially no stable storage. However, because of the limited resources an IoT device may need to offload expensive tasks to resource-rich devices. These might be a Cloud server or an Edge node if the latency of task responses is important. In order to address this issue, in this work we developed a middleware to facilitate task offloading using a measure of behavioural trust.

Importance

The key importance of this work is to understand exactly how much of the limited resources needs to be used to implement the middleware. This is because trust models that are used to assess which resource-rich device to offload a task to are typically very large. There is an assumption that “more information” = “better trust model”, but the limited resources mean that there is not much space available to store a behavioural trust model. Our implementation investigated the required design decisions to fit such a system on these IoT devices.

Perspectives

During this research we identified the challenges with using certain protocols. For example, MQTT uses TCP which requires a large amount of RAM in order to support the guarantees that TCP provides. MQTT-SN uses UDP, but was not implemented by the Contiki-NG IoT operating system we used. We also needed to understand the cost of securing the messages sent in this system. Due to issues identified in DTLS implementations we chose to investigate OSCORE to protect messages. This standard conveniently uses the hardware accelleration of the Zolertia RE-Mote devices we performed a deployment with. However, we had to minimise the use of Elliptic Curve operations due to the computational cost (even with hardware acceleration) that meant about 1 signature could be verified per second. Finally, future deployments of such a system will also need to design an appropriate trust model that fits within the limited memory remaining after implementing the task offloading middleware. Our use of the Beta Reputation System proved effective due to its small size.

Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge-Based IoT Networks

Summary

There is increasing interest in using highly resource-constrained IoT devices to perform complex tasks. These resource might include limited processing power (e.g., 32MHz CPU), RAM (e.g., 32 KiB to 256 KiB), ROM (512 KiB), and potentially no stable storage. However, because of the limited resources an IoT device may need to offload expensive tasks to resource-rich devices. These might be a Cloud server or an Edge node if the latency of task responses is important. In most cases, trust is built up reactively where an interaction is performed and the result of that interaction is used to update a trust model. In this work we instead adopt a proactive approach to assessing trust, where a challenge is periodically sent to each resource-rich device that a task could be offloaded to. This challenge is sufficiently expensive for the resource-rich device to compute a result, but cheap for the resource-constrained device to verify.

Importance

Storing data and building a trust model reactively is expensive. For devices with limited memory it will not be possible to store a large amount of information on interaction histories. Proactive assessment is much cheaper, as all that needs to be stored is the result from the latest assessment. This means more memory can be dedicated to other features instead of building trust models.

Perspectives

An issue with a reactive assessment of trust is that once a resource-constrained IoT device receives a response, it will not always be able to compute if that result was correct. To do so generally would require it executing the task itself. The proactive assessment, on the other hand, can be cheaply checked. Performing offloading based on a proactive assessment assumes that there is a link between a resource-rich device’s willingness to perform an expensive task to demonstrate their trustworthiness in performing the actual task. There is the potential for a resource-rich device to perform the proactive assessment correctly, but then perform the task incorrectly. It is likely that a hybrid approach will need to be investigated.

Talks

How To Stop Poachers Stealing Your Pandas

Talk, Shop Front Theatre, Coventry, UK

Pint of Science is an annual event where researchers share their work in a informal context (the pub) with the general public. The aim of these events is to inform in a relaxed environment without. This talk presented on my researcher undertaken during my PhD and included a live demonstration of members of the public using a directional antenna to find the location of a small transmitter.

Warwick Postgraduate Colloquium in Computer Science

Event, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

The Warwick Postgraduate Colloquium in Computer Science (WPCCS) is a PhD student-run event which showcases the research performed by PhD students in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Warwick. I was chair of WPCCS 2016 and a member of the programme comittee for WPCCS 2017 and WPCCS 2018. Each year we received more presentations and posters submitted to the event as we tried to increase the event’s similarity to conferences PhD students would attend.

Competitive Advantage in the Digital Economy (CADE) Forum

Event, University of Warwick in Venice, Venice, Italy

The Competitive Advantage in the Digital Economy (CADE) Forum aims to bring together academics and practitioners to discuss the challenges of the digital economy and present the latest cutting edge research. I was the Program Chair for the 2019 forum and that year the event focused on Smart Service Systems, Personal Data and Cyber Security. There were 28 speakers and 5 keynote speakers who gave presentations on a wide variety of topics. Funding to hold the event was obtained from a variety of sources, including winning funding from Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study.

Orbit RRI Ethical Hackathon on Cyber Security

Talk, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK

ORBIT’s aim is to promote Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) to ensure the sustainability, acceptability and desirability of research. As part of this goal in June of 2019 they ran an Ethical Hackathon on Cyber Security of satellite systems. I was invited to give a guest talk on work applying formal verification to prove security properties of space systems being performed in the FAIR-SPACE hub. The summary of the event highlighted the depth understanding participants gained of RRI issues related to cyber security.

Towards Security Minded Verification: A Case Study of Cooperative Awareness Messages

Talk, University of Coventry, Coventry, UK

I was invited to give a talk to Coventry University’s Institute for Future Transport and Cities on my work performed for FAIR-SPACE which investigated a formal verification of security properties of the generation of Cooperative Awareness Messages. One of the conclusions of this presentation was the difficulty of verifying non-functional security properties.

Trust Assessment in 32 KiB of RAM: Multi-application Trust-based Task Offloading for Resource-constrained IoT Nodes

Conference Presentation, ACM Symposium of Applied Computing, Virtual Event, South Korea

There is an increasing demand for Internet of Things (IoT) systems comprised of resource-constrained sensor and actuator nodes executing increasingly complex applications, possibly simultaneously. IoT devices will not be able to execute computationally expensive tasks and will require more powerful computing nodes, called edge nodes, for such execution, in a process called computation offloading. When multiple powerful nodes are available, a selection problem arises: which edge node should a task be submitted to? This problem is even more acute when the system is subjected to attacks, such as DoS, or network perturbations such as system overload. In this presentation,a trust model-based system architecture for computation offloading is presented. The system architecture provides confidentiality, authentication and non-repudiation of messages in required scenarios and will operate within the resource constraints of embedded IoT nodes. The viability of the architecture is demonstrated with an example deployment of Beta Reputation System trust model on real hardware.

Trust Trackers for Computation Offloading in Edge Based IoT Networks

Conference Presentation, IEEE INFOCOM, Virtual Event

Wireless Internet of Things (IoT) devices will be deployed to enable applications such as sensing and actuation. These devices are typically resource-constrained and are unable to perform resource-intensive computations. Therefore, these jobs need to be offloaded to resource-rich nodes at the edge of the IoT network for execution. However, the timeliness and correctness of edge nodes may not be trusted (such as during high network load or attack). In this presentation, we look at the applicability of trust for successful offloading. Traditionally, trust is computed at the application level, with suitable mechanisms to adjust for factors such as recency. However, these do not work well in IoT networks due to resource constraints. We propose a novel device called Trust Tracker (denoted by Σ) that provides higher-level applications with up-to-date trust information of the resource-rich nodes. We prove impossibility results regarding computation offloading and show that Σ is necessary and sufficient for correct offloading. We show that, Σ cannot be implemented even in a synchronous network and we compute the probability of offloading to a bad node, which we show to be negligible when a majority of nodes are correct. We perform a small-scale deployment to demonstrate our approach.

Next Generation Programmers

Talk, Virtual Event, Kazakhstan

Next Generation Programmers was an event aimed to introduce programming to young adults (14 – 17 years old) in rural Kazakhstan which was organised by Dr. Torgyn Erland. I delivered three 1 hour sessions to introduce the attendees to software development, the interesting problems that can be solved using it, and pertinent cyber security issues that the attendees were likely to encounter.